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Hot rolling is a mill process which involves rolling the steel at a high temperature (typically above 926° C), which is above the steel’s recrystallization temperature. At this temperature it can be shaped and formed easily, and the steel can be made in much larger sizes. Hot rolled steel is typically cheaper than cold rolled steel.
Cold rolled steel is essentially hot rolled steel that has had further processing. The steel is processed further in cold reduction mills, where the material is cooled then annealed or temper rolled. This process will produce steel with closer dimensional tolerances and a wider range of surface finishes. All cold products provide a superior surface finish, tolerance, concentricity, and straightness when compared to hot rolled steel.
Cold Rolled Full Hard
Cold rolled full hard steel (CRFH) is a product that is supplied directly after cold-reduction rolling, without any annealing to soften the steel. This product is utilized for applications that do not require any formability beyond very limited bending and/or roll forming. The product contains small amounts of residual cold rolling oil on the surface.
Hot dip galvanizing involves cleaning of raw metal (degreasing, pickling and fluixing) then immersing the metal in a molten zinc bath at a temperature of about 450 degrees Celsius. A chemical reaction between the zinc and the iron in the metal bonds a layer of pure zinc to the outer surface of the metal.
Electrogalvanizing is an electroplating technique used to place a layer of zinc metal on top of a steel surface. It involves immersing a steel component into a solution containing zinc salts followed by the application of electricity to induce an electrochemical reaction. Compared to hot dip galvanization, electrogalvanizing provides a thinner coating and more aesthetic appearances.
Galvannealed steel is a zinc-iron alloy product, where the base metal is coated by the hot-dip process, then heated to induce alloying between the molten zinc coating and the steel. The process of galvanization is performed via hot-dipping and instantaneous annealing, which produces a matte gray finish. Galvannealed steel is conducive to welding and the surface is excellent for paint adhesion.
Pre-painted / Organic Coated
Pre-paint steel is a bare metal substrate or corrosion resistant substrate that has had paint applied to both sides through a continuous coil coating process, which produces a uniform paint finish. The metal is unwound, cleaned and chemically treated during the process. Depending on product specifications, one or both sides may then be primed and coated, oven cured and rewound.
Heavy Plates / Quarto Plates
Pleates are flat-rolled products from slabs or ingots of greater thickness than sheets or strips.
Grain Oriented Electrical Steels are iron-silicon alloys that provide low core loss and high permeability needed for more efficient and economical electrical transformers. Cold Rolled Grain Oriented (CRGO) grades of electrical steel are typically used for transformer cores and large generators.
Non-Grain Oriented Electrical Steels are iron-silicon alloys with varying silicon contents and have similar magnetic properties in all directions in plan of the sheet. Cold Rolled Non-Grain Oriented (CRNGO) steels are principally used for motors, generators, alternators, ballasts, small Transformers and a variety of other electromagnetic applications.
Aluminized steel is carbon steel that has been coated with an aluminum-silicon alloy through a process called hot-dipping. The technique creates a tight metallurgical bond between the base metal (the carbon steel) and its alloy coating to give the new material a combination of steel and aluminum’s best characteristics.
Aluzinc, Zincalume and Galvalume are different trade names of one product. Aluzinc is a steel coating consisting of about 55% aluminum, 43.4% zinc and 1.6% silicon. Due to this composition, it is highly effective in protecting other base metals from corrosion and the elements. and suitablefor applications where long life is an essential requirement. It is formable, weldable and readily accepts paint finishes.
Tinplate is a thin steel sheet with a coating of tin applied either by dipping in molten metal or by electrolytic deposition; almost all tinplate is now produced by the latter process. Tinplate made by this process is essentially a sandwich in which the central core is strip steel. This core is cleaned in a pickling solution and then fed through tanks containing electrolyte, where tin is deposited on both sides.
Blackplate is hot rolled or cold rolled, non-descaled sheet steel or sheet iron. It is a sheet steel or sheet iron that has not yet been made into a tin plate by being coated with tin or that is used uncoated where the protection afforded by tin is unnecessary.
Merchant bars are long steel products used by structural steel fabricators to build a number of different products. They come in flats, rounds, steel angles, squares, strips, channels – almost any form. They are generally used in structural applications that involves welding, bending, punching and forming and are commonly found in floor and roof joists, walkways and railings.
These are products that are typically used in large structures such as buildings and bridges. Products in this range include Universal beams, Universal Columns, Parallel Flange Channels, Universal Joists, Rails & Equal Angles.
Wire rod is a rolled alloy or nonalloy steel product, produced from a semi (e.g. bloom) and having a round, rectangular or other cross-section. Particularly fine cross-sections may be achieved by subsequent cold forming (drawing). Wire rod is wound into coils and transported in this form.
Rebar, also known as reinforcement steel and reinforcing steel, is a steel bar or mesh of steel wires used in reinforced concrete and masonry structures to strengthen and hold the concrete in tension. To improve the quality of the bond with the concrete, the surface of rebar is often patterned.
Seamless tubes are defined by the absence of a welded seam. The tubing is manufactured through an extrusion process where the tube is drawn from a solid steel billet and extruded into a hollow form. Seamless subes have more strength, superior corrosion resistance, and the ability to withstand higher pressure than welded tubes.
Welded tubes are produced through roll forming strips or sheets of steel into a tube shape and then welding the seam longitudinally. Welded tubing can be accomplished either by hot forming and cold forming processes. Of the two, cold forming results in smoother finishes and tighter tolerances.
Billets & Blooms
Billets and blooms are semi-finished steel products with square or round section produced via continuous casting technology. Billets and blooms are produced in a wide range of steel grades and serve as basis material for the warm rolling or are processed directly into forged pieces. Generally, blooms have a section measure of 160 mm or more, and billets have smaller measures.
Slabs are semi-finished steel and are the end result of rolling ingots on a rolling mill or by processing them through a continuous casting process. Slabs have rectangular cross sections and are used as the “starter” metals in the making of flat products such as steel plates or hot rolled coils. Slabs are always flat and rectangular and will typically range from 160 mm thicknesses and more.
Stainless steels are steels containing at least 10.5% chromium, less than 1.2% carbon and other alloying elements. Stainless steel’s corrosion resistance and mechanical properties can be further enhanced by adding other elements, such as nickel, molybdenum, titanium, niobium, manganese, etc.
Aluminium is a silvery-white metal, and the most widespread metal on Earth. It is one of the lightest metals in the world but also very strong, extremely flexible, and corrosion-resistant. It does not magnetize, is a great electricity conductor, and forms alloys with practically all other metals. Aluminium can be easily processed using pressure both when it's hot and when it's cold. It can be rolled, pulled, and stamped.
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